Special Utilities

Learn what special utilities are and how they work.

About Special Utilities

Utility classes, in general, are low-level by design and typically only apply a single CSS property, therefore, utilities are typically named based on the CSS property it represents. However, there may be times where it might make sense to combine more than one CSS property or name a utility based on its purpose rather than the CSS property it represents.

Text Size

The text-<size> special utility differs from font-<size> in that it applies both font-size and line-height properties. For more information, visit Text Size.

<h1 class="text-8xl">
.text-8xl {
font-size: var(--font-8xl);
line-height: var(--font-8xl-leading);

Directional Shorthands

You can apply directional properties like padding, border-width and margin horizontally and vertically using the x and y shorthand. For more information, visit Directional.

<div class="px-20 my-32">
.px-20 {
padding-left: 1.25rem;
padding-right: 1.25rem;

.my-32 {
margin-top: 2rem;
margin-bottom: 2rem;


The gutter special utility applies margin-based horizontal or vertical spacing of child elements using the Lobotomized Owl selector. For more information, visit Gutter.

<div class="gutter-x-20">
.gutter-x-20 > * + * {
--gutter-right: 0,
--gutter-left: 1,
margin: 0 calc(var(--size-20) * var(--gutter-right)) 0 calc(var(--size-20) * var(--gutter-left));


The ratio special utility applies percentage based padding in order to simulate various common screen aspect ratios.

<div class="ratio-16-9">
.ratio-16-9 {
position: relative;
width: 100%;
padding-top: 56.25%;